General note. Compared with the preceding map, the
reduction in the number of Turkish tribes and their replacement by several large
Mongol ones which now form the main complement of the steppe is striking. The
Turkic tribes, with one exception, adopt either Jurchen (Ongut), or Muslim (Karluk,
Kalach, Kengerlu) culture. The Kipchak are the exception, but even they, too, on
the western border of the steppe enter the region of Russian-Byzantine culture.
The genuinely steppe tribes (Zubu) and the Kara-Khitan seek independent paths of
development and find them by accepting Nestorianism or Bon. The confessional
indicator of community gradually supersedes the tribal one.