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Searches for an Imaginary Kingdom

Lev Gumilev

Index

Abaga (Ilkhan 1265-81), 207, 215

'Abbasids, 15, 74

Abdurahman, 184

Abu Dulef, 84-5

Abu Sa'id, Busai, Bu Sa'id (Ilkhan 1316-35), 214

Acre, 167,192,198,199,211

Adalbert, bishop, 103

Aguda, Kin (Jurchen) emperor 109

Ahnman, 269, 271,272,273

Ahura Mazdah, 274, see also Qormusda

Aibek,197

Ai-buka, 204

Ai-di, 52

Am Jalud,199-200

Akatsir, 293

Aksu, 84,124

Alak-Udur, 231

Alan-goa, 89,133,160

Alans, 75,180,194, 319,369,375

Alashan, 19, 78, 79 Albast, 271

Aleksandr Yaroslavich Nevskii, 86, 188,273,309,313,317,324, aspects of in Lay of Igor's Host, 321, swears brotherhood with Sartak, 187

Alemdar, 205 Aleppo, 196, 200

Alexander, archbishop, 37

Alexander Nevsky, see Aleksandr Yaroslavich Nevskii

Alexander III, pope, 6

Almalik. 165, 205

Alqui, 203, 206

Altai mountains, 22,47,62,63,87,127, 132,133,163,255, 272,281

Allan depter (Golden Book), 221

Altan (otchigin), son of Qutula-qan, 147,151,152,156,237,251

Altan-qan, Jin emperor, 137, 265

Ambagan, see under Ye-lu Amdo, 80, 83, 210

Amu Darya (Oxus), 23,123,176,178, 195

Amur r., 60, 61, 95, 96, 98, 99, settle ment of steppe from this area, 91

analysis, 10, 226, 238, 244 anda (Mongol term for a sworn brother), 142,147, 229,238,242, 247, 249,258

Andrei Yaroslavich, prince of Vladimir, brother of Aleksandr Nevsku, 186, 313, 314, 316, 321-2

Andrew II, king of Hungary, 167

Andrew (Andre de Longjumeau), 196

Angara r., 97

An Lushan, 34

animal style, 32

Annamites, 202

Antioch, 126,167,192

Arabia, 74

Arabs, 3, 10, 75, 102

Aragon, 211

Aral Sea, 22, 23, 123, steppes, 61, 84, 85,166

Argu, 83

Argun (Ilkhan 1284-91), 367

Argyn (descendants of Basmil), 83

Arik-Boke, 172,190, 202-3, 205-6

Arius, 37

Armenia Minor (i.e. Cilicia), 195,

Western, 75 arrows, 295f

Arslan-khan, of Samarkand, 117,118

Arslan-khan, of Uighuna, 69

Arulat, tribe, 147

Arys r., 83

Asan, merchant, 252

Ascalon, 192

Ascelm, crusader, 192

Asia Central (Russian Srednyaya Aziya) (roughly Turkestan), 74, 87,272, east Central {TsentraVnaya Aziya) (i.e. east of Pamirs), 363, Middle (Sredinnaya Aziya), 344

Athanasius, deacon, 37

authority, nature of hereditary, 111

Ayyubids, 192,196

Azerbaijan, 75

 

Bachman, 180

Badai, Kerait, 258

Baghdad, 74,76,166,167,179,195, 201,310

Bahrein, 74

Baidyn, 30

Baiju, Mongol commander, 187, 192

Baikal, 61,137,156

Balasagun, 115-16, 123,164

Baldakh, 167

Baldwin of Flanders, 171

Balkh, 84

Balkhash lake, 19, 22,23, 61,118,123, steppes, 61

Ban Gu, 28

Baniyas, 196

Barents Sea, 22

Barga, 19

Barskhan, 84

Barulas, Mongol tribe, 147

baskaks, 204,273

Basmil, 35, 83, 93, 99,100,125

Batu, son of Jochi (khan of Golden Horde 1227-56), 179-81,186-7, 189,264,292,294, 310, 313, campaign in Eastern Europe, 309, 313, overtures to Russian princes, 309

Bayaut, Mongol tribe, 230

Baybars (Mamluk sultan 1260-77), 197, 200-1

Bayidaraq-belchir, 156,245-6

Bedouin, 74

Bei-Han,78,91

Beijing (i.e. Peking), 163,174, 207, 210

Bei-Wei, 79

Bekter, 143, 226, 233, 272

Belgutei, 232

Berdaa, 75

Berendei, 290, 291,370

Berke (khan of Golden Horde 1257-66), 187-8, 199, 201, 205-7, 311, a Muslim, 187, 199, 202, 369, protects Orthodox, breaks with Iran, China, 320, 323

Bernard St, of Clairvaux, 363

Bhutan, 277

Bianjm (Kaifeng), 182

Biarmia or Great Perm`, 75

Bigude, tribe, 114, 115

Bikin, seeTikm Bishbahk, 114, 115, 121

Black Cowls, see Kara-Kalpak

Black Faith, 161, 208-9, 261f , 305, tree in, 305

Black Forest, 247

Black Sea region, steppes, 74, 86, 322 blood enmity, 80, friendship, see anda "Blue Horde" (Sinyaya orda), 294

Bodonchar, 90, 230

Boemund, 192, 195-6

Boghra-khan, 85 Bograch, 85

Bokhai, 55, 57, 59, 60, 64, 99

Bolgar, Great, near Kazan`, 180

Bolgars, on Danube, Bulgars, 74, 371

Bolgars, on Volga, 75, 290

Bon, 39, 40, 274, 277-8, demons, 278

Bo'orchu, 147, 229, 232, 236

Boris Vyacheslavich, outlawed prince, 289

Borjigm, clan, 140, 142, 227

Boroqchm-Qatun, 187, 205

Boroqul, 297

Borte, wife of Chinggiskhan, 142-3, 145, 225, 227, carried off by Merkit, 143, 227, 232, 236

Borte-chino (Grey Wolf), 88

Boyan, 201, 304, 322

Brahmaputra, 274

Bryacheslav, prince of Polotsk, 317

Buddha, 40, bone of, 25, 49

Buddhism, 7, 35, 41, 69, 269, in Uighuna, 120, oppressed in China, 70-1

Buddhists, 194, in Kara-Kitai, 165-6, in Tangut, 82-3

Bukhara, 119, 123, 206

Bukhtarma, 206

Bulgai, 203, 206

Bulgaria, 102, 104, 180, 187

Bulgars, on Danube, 74, 86

Bun-Boko, son of Chagatai, 180, 181, 234, 272, 309

Burmese, 202

Burqan-Qaldun, mountain, 232, 268

Burtas, tribe, 291

Buryat, 61, 261-3, 271

Busai, see Abu Sa'id

Buyiruq-qan, 126, 132, 133, 155-6, 245-6

Byzantium, 16, 34, 75, 86, 102, 104, 170, 211, 371, steppe Byzantimsm, 35-42, 74

 

Caesana, Palestine, 193

caliph, significance of title, 111

cangue (wooden punishment collar), 227

Canossa, 102

Caravan trade, 33, 34, 101, 120-1, 135, 161, 176, route of, 38

Carohngians, 74

Carpmi, Giovanni da Piano, 184, 188-9, 264, 267, 273

Caspian basin, 85, Sea, 22, 23, 61, steppes, 166

Catholic betrayal of Nestorians, 198, 212, 215, drive to the east, 170-2, 187

Caucasus, 176, 301

cavalry, 99

censorship, 311

Chagatai, son of Chinggiskhan, 141, 159, 179, 181, 233, 236, 238

ChaiRong, 71

Chakhar, 79, 93, 109, 204

Chalcedon, 36-7, 303-4

Chang'an, 32, 49

Chaoxian, 29

Charlemagne, 9, 74, 104

Charles, of Anjou, 211

Charles Martell, 119

Charqa, 232

Chaur-qan, 234

Chernigov, 180, 289, sympathy towards Nestorianism, 301-2, 304, 314

Cheshi, 90

China, 165, 176, 182, 372-3, and Mongols, 188, and nomads, 16, 27, 63, 64, 90-1, 97, 103, and other empires, 82, attitude to "barbarians", 49-50, 70, 80, Catholicism in, 204, 210-11, culture of not accepted by steppe, 35, foreign domination of, 70, gifts to foreigners, 80-2, Great Wall of, 27, 60, 97, individual in, 43-4, name derived from Kidan, Khitan, 92-3, population decline m, 29, religious conflicts in, 208-9

Chinggiskhan, also Temujin (1162-1227), xvi, 15, 90, 123, 125, 131, 138, 150-2, 160, 163, 166, 172, 175, 177, 223, 225, ambiguously portrayed in the Secret History, 232-6, demoted in favour of Mongol troops, 242, and Ong-qan succours Ong-qan, 139, quarrel and reconciliation, 156, 246-51, and religions, 161-2, 173, 371, clan nobility abandons him, 252, counter-raid on Merkit, 228-9, 234, date of his birth, 226, children's birth, 227-8, his marriage, 228, death of, 177, executes Jurkm clan, 138, puzzle of creation and destruction of his power, 221, 226, 239, 244, recommendations for the succession, 179, reconciles subjects to his unlimited power, 161f , relations with Jamuqa, 146-7, 237, 244f , 251, 253-9, rise to power not reflected in the Secret History, 229, supported by "people of long will", 154, war against him civil, not tribal, 155-7, wounded by an arrow, 295-6

Cinnkai, 181, 184

Chinos clan, 151

Chormagan, 191, 372

Christian kingdom in east, crusaders` belief in 121, opposed to Buddhism and Islam, 269

Christians, 36f attempts to convert Slavs, Hungarians, 104, Christian emissaries from Sube'etei killed by Russians, 303, 308, hostility between Catholic, Orthodox, Nestorian, 101f , 345

Chu, river, 123

Chud`, 187

Chui group of tribes, 340

Chumugun, 86

Cigil, 84, 97

Cilicia, see Armenia Minor

clan structure broken, 159

Clement IV, pope, 215

climate, 20-5, see also desiccation, steppes

Collection of Chronicles, 223-5, 245, on Jamuqa, 253-6

Comnenus, Manuel, 5

Confucians, 173

Cong-wang, 109

Concealed Tale (Russian translation of Yuan-chao-bi-shi), 222, 239

Constantine VII Porphyrogemtus, emperor, 12, 76

Constantine IX Monomachus, emperor, 315

Constantinople, 75, 103, 170, 189, freed, 193, sacked by crusaders, 170-1, wealth of, 171

Crete, 76

crusade(s), 104-5, 166-7, 170, 194, 363, of Yellow Cross, 124, 194, 201, 204, 215, 310

Ctesiphon, 39

Cuanzhou, 57

Cuman, see also Kipchak and Polovtsy, 267

cyclones, 20-4, 61-2

Cyprus, 192

Czechs, 180, 313

 

Dai, 107

Dai-sechen, 230

Dalai-Nur, 55

Dalai-qan, Zubu leader, 91

Dalan-baljut, 148, 150, 151, 153, 225, 230, 234, 245, 250, 257 Dahdi, 93

Damascus, 192, 196, 200, 201

Damietta, 166, 167

Dandolo, Doge of Venice, 170

Daniil, prince of Galich, 313-16

Dansyan, tribe, 56, 66, 67, 74, 93, 96, 340

Danube, 74, 76, 86

Daritai, uncle of Chinggiskhan, 253

Darmala, 299, 316

David, king, also Kuchlug, 165-7, see also Prester John

David Narin, 199

David Svyatoslavich, 299

Deguan, see under Ye-lu

Deh'un-boldoq, 141

demons, 278 Deremela, 299

desert, animals needed to cross, 110

Desht-i-Kipchak, the Polovtsy steppe, 86, 287

desiccation, 19-25, dating penods of, 23, 24, 61

detectives, methods used, 244

Di, tribe, 18, 66

Dinlin, 28, 56

Dingzhou, 65 div, 165

Div, 299f , 322, seen as refernce to Black Faith, 305

Dmitrii Donskoi, 377

Dnepr, 76

Dobun-Mergen "the Wise", 89

Dodei-cherbi, 234

Dokuz-Qatun, wife of Hulegu, 195

Dokuz-Oguz, 48

Dolonnor, 204

Don, 104, 180

Dongqayit, 266

Dongtinghu, 113

Doqolqu-cherbi, 231, 235

Duhun`, 56

Duva, 214

dzayan (jayagan), 271

Dzungaria, 7, 19, 28, 51, 93, 99, 114, 117, 123-4, 166, 178, 209

Dzungarian group of tribes, 341

 

Ebugejin-Noyakin, 251

Edessa or Urfa, fall of, 363

Edigei (murza 1399-1419), 377

Egypt, 167, 170, 192, 196-7, 201

el/il (acknowledgement of supra-tribal military authority), 112

Elchidai-noyan, 192-3, 225, 242, 366

elem, 59

Elijah, gurkhan, 122

Elijah (I-heh), 121-2

Elijah III, Nestorian patriarch, 122

emir, 87

emissaries, murder of, 273

Emat-kaan, see Inancha-qan, 126, 127

Enisei, 18, 205, 246

Ephesus, 38

Erke-qara, 138

Erlig-qan, 271-2 Ests, 171

ethnic changes, 44, 328-9, names, 93, 125-6, 340f

ethnogenesis, 14, 20, 92, 213, 328-9, 340, 360

Etugen, idogan, Itoga, Natigai (Earth), 263, 267, 271

ethnology, 359-62

Etzin-ai, 177

Etzin Gol, 205

Eudes, count of Pans, 74, 170

Europe, 103f , Western, changes in attitudes to rest of the world, 213

excommunication, 74

 

faiths, as term for non-theistic systems, 271

fasting for nomads, 96-7 Fei Gui, 33

Fedor Yarunovich, boyar, 310

fellahin, 196

Ferghana, 83, 117, 121

Florence, 135

"force of circumstances", 73, 169, 170, 178, 205, 206, 324

France, 74

Franks, 170, 199, 371

Frederick I Barbarossa, 170

Frederick II, Hohenstaufen, 192, 314, 365

frontier formations, 32-3, 58-60, 68, 70, 94-5, western, of nomad world, 73, 75

furs, 75

 

Gagauz, 315

Gahcia, 180

Gahch, 312, 315

Galilee, 199

Gansu, 66, 79, 80, 95

Ganzhou, 48, 80, 98, 205

Gaozong, 34, 39

Gaza, 192, 196, 199

Gazna, 118

Genoa, 135, 192, 198

Georgia, 102, 176, 198-9, 205

Ghazan (Ilkhan 1295-1304), 215, 223

Ghibelhnes, 192, 211

Goa-maral (Fine Fallow Deer), 88

Gobi, desert, 18-19, 21, 23, 27, 61, 63, 94, 110, 134, 206

Godfrey, Gottfried, of Bouillon, 119, 170

Golden Book (Altan depter), 224-5, as term linked with Jurchen Km (Jin), 293

Golden Horde, 94, 187, 198, 201, 205, 292, 305, 310, becomes Islamic, 376, break with Mongolia, 181, 323, frees Eastern Europe from Mongol Yoke, 323-4

Gosrai, Guo-si-luo, 80, 81, 83

Greeks, 74, 75, 170

Gregory IX, pope, 171

Guelphs, 192

Guezhou, 51

GuoWei.70, 72

Gur, 118

Gunn-ba'atur, Kerait, 238, 245-8

gurkhan, 110, 112, see also titles

Guy-er-bi, 114

Guyuk (great khan 1246-8), 180, 181, 185, 186-7, 189, 241, 265, 310, campaign against Catholics, 309

Guz, Oguz, Uz, 74, 84, 97, 104, 117, 291

 

Hailm, mountain, 103

Hama, 196

Hami, 19

Han 27, Later (a d 25-220), 28-9, 70, Northern, 70

Han Yu, 49, 50 71

Hangai range, 18, 158

Hanoi, 202

Heaven, see Mongol religion Hebei, 55, 56, 58, 175

Hedong, 66, 67, 70, 72

Hentei, 61

Heptalites, 275

Hetoum 1, 195-6, 265

Hezhou, 116, 202

history 325, methods of research in, 8-13, 24, 43, 64, 72-3, 79, 131, 174, 224, 239-40, 245, 285, 324, 325-7, 337-49, 377-8

historyscope, 13-17, 52, 103, 128, 169, 212, 217-18, 359

Hodjent, 118, 119

Hoelun-eke, 141, 231, 233, 241

Hohenstaufen(s), Conradin, Manfred, 211

Horns, 196, 200

Hononus III, pope, 167

horde, nature of, 160

horses, 99, 110, 113, 116, 117, 120

Hsi (Xi), Great (= Tatab), 108

Hu, 18

Huang Chao, 51, 54, 68, 70, 74, 78, 79

Huang He, 18, 66, 108, 134, 163, 174, 176

Hulegu (Ilkhan 1256-65), 172, 194, 197-201, 204-5, 369

humanism, see Renaissance

Humus, 114

Hun, Hu-nu, 19, 27, 32, 64, 69, 86, 90, 293, conditions among, 30

Hungary, 74, 180, 187

Hunyan, 95

 

Ibelin, 192

Ibn-Khaldun, 15

Iconium, Konya, 192

Idykut, 87, 116, 123

Igor`, prince of Kiev (?-946), 75, 76

Igor` Ol'govich (?-1147), prince of Kiev, 304

Igor` Svyatoslavich (1150-1202), prince of Novgorod-Seversk, hero of the Lay of Igor's Host (qv), 10, 286, 290f , 300, 302, 307-8, 310, 314, 316f , 318, 322, ahteraryhero, 322, in alliance with Polovtsy, 287

Ikires, Mongol tribe, 155

Ilkhan, 201

Ilsut, Mongol tribe, 155

Imeretia, 199

Imil r., 115, 123, 125, 207, town, 123

Inancha-qan, 126, 127, 132-3, 137-8, 155

India, 176

indicators, ideological, 169

Innocent III, pope, 171

Innocent IV, pope, 189, 192

Inshan range, 91, 97

Iran, 74, 84, 90, 195, 200, 205, 372, breaks with Great Khan, 215

Iraq, 372

Irgiz, r., 164, 173

Irtyzh, r., 83, 86, 125, 158, 162

Irtysh, Black, 19, 212

Islam, 35, 76, 84, 99, 121, 206, 215, chief enemy of nomads, 74, objections to, 39-40, 160

Ismail Samani, 74, 84

Issyk-Kul, 83, 84, 123

ltil`, 120

War, Polovtsy khan, 289

Itoga, see Etugen

Ivan or John, Johannes, see Inancha-qan

Izyaslav Mstislavich (c 1097-1154), prince of Volhynia and Kiev, 289-90

Izyaslav Vasil'kovich, (alleged) prince of Polotsk, 316

Izyaslav Yaroslavich (1024-78), prince of Kiev, 289

 

jabgu, see titles of rulers

Jacobites (monophysites), 102, 191

Jadaran, 150

Jajirat, tribe, 114, 142f

Jalair, tribe, 92, 93, 147

Jalal-ad-Din, 176, 179, 191

Jamuqa(-sechen), 142-50, 226, 231, 234-6, concerned for Chinggis-khan's interests, 225, 254, conflicting interpretations of his role, 256, contradictory actions of, 152-3, 156, 225, 230-1, 253, friend and enemy of Chinggiskhan, 244, his nomad riddle, 143-4, 237, his part in Mongol-Naiman war, 245-51, 253-5, puzzle of his personality in the Secret History, 237, defended by the author, 241, seized and executed, 158, 254-60, supported by tribal aristocrats, 150

Jambeg (khan of Golden Horde 1342-57), 376

Jebe, 234, 235, 265

Jeje'er Undur, mt , 157

Jelme, 229, 232, 234, 235, 295-6

Jerene gorge, 151

Jerusalem, 167, 192, 194, 196, 363, Kingdom of, 170, 192, 198-200, 371, attitude to Muslim and West Europeans, 363-4, concern for constant war and trade, 363, ignores Mongols, 192, hostile to Mongols, 198, 366

Jin empire, 33, 134-5, 175, Later, 68, 80

Jochi, son of Chinggiskhan (1190-1227), 141, 162-3, 179, 181, 227, 233, 236, 238, 248, 251

Jochi-Qasar (Jochibara), 231

John VI, Nestorian patriarch in Baghdad, 96

John Asen, Bulgarian prince, 315

John Tzimisces, 104

John Vdtatzes, 313-14

Joseph, Khazar king, 76

Julqu, gurkhan, 122, 133, 138, 162, 165

Jurchedai noyan, 266

Jurchen (Manchur), 25, 55, 60, 64, 88, 91, 101, 103, 107-13, 116, 122, 134, 137-8, 141, 154, 159, 163, 179, and Chinese culture, 113, and shamanism, 281, equated with khin, 293, war with Mongols, 163, 173-6, war with Song against Khitan (Liao), 107-13 Jurkin, tribe, 138, 229, 234

 

Kadak, 184

Kadan, 204, 210

Kaganate, Great Turkic, 33-4, Second Turkic, 54

Kaifeng, 69, 72, 79, 112-13

Kaipmfu, 204

Kaiping (Shangdu), 207

Kalach, 157

Kalbites, 15

Kalka, r., 293, 307, 308, 311

Kalmyk, 178, 293

Kam (shaman), 267, 281

Kamam, 86

Kamil, sultan of Egypt, 197

Kangym, 86, 115-17, 131

Karabalgasun, 57

Kara-Kalpak, Black Cowls, 291, 370

Kara-Khitan, Kara-Kitai, 117, 122, 132-3, 138, 162, 164-6, 172, 252, territory and army, 123, 125, shamans, 281

Karakorum, 179, 182, 189, 193, 203, 205-7, 307

Karashar, 85

Karluk, 20, 61, 74, 76, 83, 84, 86, 96, 99, 115, 117, 118, 125

Kashgar, 74, 84-5, 115-17, 121, 123

Kashgardarya, 84

Katwan, battle of, 6, 119, 121

Kayala r., 294, 307, 308, 311

Kengeres (Pechenegs), 85

Kengerh, 86

Kerait, tribe, 15, 92-4, 96, 99, 126, 133-4, 136-8, 142-3, 146, 148, 155-8, 212, 234, 238, 242, 245, 251, 267, 293

Keregez, 185

Kerulenr , 87, 91, 157

Khakan, 86

Khakass steppes, 18

Khalka, 19

khan, 110, 155, see also titles of rulers

kharlug, 298

Khanbahk, 214

Khazaria, 75, 103, 292

Khazars, 75, 85, 104, 291, 322, dominant in 940s, 75-6

khin, 292f , arrows, 295f

Khmgan, 19, 28, 137

Khitan, Khitai, 16, 25, 33, 54f , 60, 64, 66, 68-74, 79, 81, 91, 93-5, 131, 340, accepted by Chinggiskhan, 176, and Peter the Great, 358, attacked by Song, 107f , 114, favour decentralised tribal union, 133, in Central Asia, 116, war with nomads, 95-9, 108

Khoiku, 43, 340

Khomushe (Humusi?), perhaps Qamar-daban, 57

Khorasan, 118

Khotan, 116, 117, 121, 123-4, 157, 164

Khwanzm (Khorezm, Khiva), 102, 104, 119, 122, 133, 168, 180, 192

Khwanzmshah, 123, 162, 164, 173, 176

Kibi, 69

Kiev, 103, 180, 312

Kuyat-Jurkin tribe, 230

Kimek (Polovtsy) tribe, 86

Kin (Jin) ("gold") empire, 97, 103, 136, 340, equated with khin, 298

Kipchak (Cuman, Polovtsy), 20, 86, 87, 131, 133, 162, 188, 194, 208, steppe, 117, 188, 255, see also Desht-i-Kipchak

Kirghiz, 40, 47, 57, 84, 90, 115, 126-7

Kistuliq, 258

Kit-Buka, Naiman, 195, 197, 199

knowledge, fragmentation of, XIV

Kobyak, Polovtsy khan, 313

Koiyak, 264

Kokochu, shaman, 162, 260, 281, see also Teb-Tengern

Kokochu, Seggum's groom, 235

KokoNor, 29, 66, 80

Kokse'u-sabraq, 156, 245

Konchak, Polovtsy khan, 315, 316

Korea, 60, 96, 98

Korkuz (George), prince, 211-12, Uighur official, 191

Koyiten, 155, 234, 245, 250

Kozel'sk, 180

Kuban", 180

Kubilai (Great khan 1260-94), 172, 194, 201-11, 234, 235, 323, heterogeneous nature of his army in China, 204

Kucha, 97, 124, 135

Kuchlug, Naiman prince, 158, 162, 163-6, 173, 242, 298

Kuden, 185

Kuhkovo, 294, 311, 377

kumis, 165, 281, 296, Orthodox prohibition of, 190

Kun-buka, 204

Kurds, 196

Kuremsa, Mongol baskak, 316

kuren circle of waggons for defence, detachment, 95, 147, 150

kuriltai, 112, 179, 186, 194, 199, 201, 203, 231, 307, chooses Jamuqa as gurkhan, 155, Temujin as khan and Chinggis, 159, 170

Kurlya, 124

Kurykan, 60

Kutlug Elteres-khan, 34

kuttuz, 197, 200

 

lampoon, political, 239, 242-3

Latin Empire, 171, 187, 211, 314, 371

Latins, 171, 190, 193

Lay of Igor's Host, The, 10, 222, 285f , a code, 294, 312f , aimed at Aleksandr Nevsku, 321-3, circumstances of its time, 287, 292, 306-7, 312f , concern with Nestorianism, 310-12, datmgs of, 286, 292, 293, 299, 307, 312-13, 318, 320, 323, didactic intention of, 288, genre of, a political lampoon, 320, Mongol influences on an allegory rooted in reality, 306, 308-9, 322, orientalisms in, 292f

Lech(feld), (Leignitz, Legnica, in Lithuania), 76, 180, 313

Lena r., 60

Leo III the Isaurian, 119

Li (Khotan), 277

Li Congke, Later Tang usurper, 53, 56, 58, 65-8

Li Keyong, the One-Eyed Dragon, 51, 53, 68

Li Siyuan, 58, 65, 66

Li Zhiyuan, 70, 72

Liang, Late, 52-3, 58, 83

Lianzhou, 83

Liao (Iron) empire, 33, 58, 65, 68, 70, 75, 79, 107, 115, 340, forcible Smicization by, 91, 100

Liao He, 54, 71, 209

Liaodong, 60, 68f , 358

Liegmtz, see Lechfeld (Lithuania), 171, 293, 316-18, 377

Liu Shou-kuang, 56

livestock, 161, 176-7

Livonia, 171

Livoman knights, 171

Lombardy, 211

Lotharingia, 74

Louis IX, saint, 188, 193, 197, 366

loyalty to "natural lord", 235, 254, 258

Loyang, 32, 67, 68

 

Magyars, 74

Mahmud, Ghaznavi, 98

Mahmud Yalvach, 184-5

Maitreya, 194

Malatia, 75

Mamai, 294, 376-7, allies with Catholics, 377

Mamluks, 196-9, 204, 372, advantages in Palestine campaign, 197, 211

Manchu, 135

Manchuria, 64, 70, 97-8, 107, 116, 281-2, feudal state, 131

Mangqut, tribe, 147, 153-4, 235

Mani, 36, 38

Manichaeism, 36-8, 41, displaced by Nestorian Christianity, 97

Manichaes, Manichaeism, 190, 217, 269, 270, 273

Marguz, Mark, Kerait khan, 96, 133

Marignolli, Giovanni da, 375

Maritime region of Far East, 91

Markuz, Mark, Kerait khan, 96, 133

Marmara, Sea of, 8

Mavarannahr, 83, 116, 117, 118, 164

Mazanderan, 118

Mengu-Timur, 369

Merkit, Mongol tribe, 15, 92, 93, 97, 114, 141-3, 145-6, 149, 155-6, 158-9, 162-3, 236, 242, 272 Merv, 96, 102

Mesopotamia, 192, 36

metaphor and meaning, 124-5

methods of argument, 10, of obtaining

material, 8, of research, 11-16

Mihirakula, 275

Mikhail Vsevolodovich (1179-1246), prince of Chernigov, 314-15

Mikhail Khorobnt (?-1248), prince of Moscow, 317

Minusinsk, 47, 57, 86

Mithras, Mithraism, 38, 369, conflict with Buddhism, 276, similarities with Bon, 274-6

Mithndates Eupator, 275

Mo, 107

Mogusy, Zubu leader, 99-100

Mokhe(Ugi), 297

Moldavia, 180

Mongke (Great khan 1251-9), 172, 180, 186, 187, 189, 193-4, 199, 201-3, 209, 264, 267, 310

Mongol army , 159, manpower shortage in, 182, Mongol minority in, 181, 185, 202, 204, 207, 218, praised by Jamuqa, 230, strength in invasion of Rus`, 308, empire, rise of, 3, 146f , 221, 244, creation of state, 235, 242, frontier situation, 187, military nature, 160, not feudal, 161, phantom of secession, 194, problem of conquered peoples, 180-3, 201-2, 207, 244

history, sources on, 221-3 contradic tionsin, 225-6, 228-9, 244, 230-1, language, 59, 293, 298, and Naiman, 126

religion 263-82, the Black Faith a coherent system, 261, heaven, 265, blue distinguished from eternal, 266, One God in, 264-8, 281, his name, 267-8, includes cosmic evil principle, 271, links with ancient Turk religion, 272, specific nature of, 282

speaking peoples, 341

steppes, 127

ulus, greatness and dissolution of, 173-4, 348-9

Mongolia, 63, 87, economic difficulties in, 177

Mongols, 62, 88, 91-4, 113, 206, 207, 287, alleged excessive savagery of, 364-8, and Naiman compete to unify steppe, 149, attitudes to, 364-5, coalitions of, 139, demand for unification among, 154f , differing views on policy, 240-1, do not fuse with Chinese, 373, dominant in east Central Asia, 177-8, known to Chinese as Tatars, 94, legendary ancestors of, 88-90, loyalty of conquered people to, 159, methods of execution among, 255, need for literate officials, 163, 177-8, support Ye-lu Dashi, 114- 15, practise torture in Palestine, 196, taxation of, 182-3

ethics of, 155, fidelity to "natural lord", 235, 254, detest those who murder emissaries, 273, 372

religion of, 260f , attitude to other faiths, 374-5, not themselves Christians, 190

society of, 139-40 and Nestorian khanates, 244 clans and individuals, 140, 147, 159, "people of long will", 140f

wars with China, 20If , Jin, 163, Jurchen, 103, 163, 174-5, Kerait, 156, 172, Khwanzmian Turks, 176-7, Kipchak, 166, Mamluks, 193-201, Merkit, 141, Naiman, 158, 172, Tangut, 177, "Western campaign", 179, reasons for success in external wars, 371

Montecorvino, Giovanni da, 211-12, 215, 367, 375

Mordva, 291

Moyuncur, Uighur khan, 40

Mstislav Vsevolodovich (?-1168), prince of Gorodno, 293

Muhammed, Khwarizmshah, 162, 164, 176, 252

Mukur-Kuran, Nirun, 252

Muslims, 84, 96, 115-18, 131-2, 136-9, 146, 149, 155, 179, 189, 197, 208, divisions among, 345, hostility to Mongols, 365, trade, 252, 363

 

Naiman, 15, 92, 93, 131-2, 136-9, 146, 149, 155, 156, 158, 159, 162, 165, 172, 234, 250-1, 281, and Nestorianism, 133, equated withKhitan, 125

names of people or tribes used in political or administrative sense, 293-4

Nanshan range, 66, 71, 80, 134

Narjeot de Toucy, 171

Narkysh-Tayan, 126

Nastas'ya, mistress of Yaroslav Osmomysl, 35

Natigai, see Etugen

nature, natural environment, 14, 18, 20-6, 59, 62-3, 87

Naya, 208-10, 233, 235

Neman, for Nemiga, 317

Nestorianism, 7-8, 16, 35-8, 102-3, 158, 172, 205, 214, 260, 281, 310, 319, 358, and Orthodoxy, 172, 190, 303-4, disappearance of, 174, dissemination in eastern Asia, 39f , 71, illegal in China, 40-2, see of Kashgar and Nevaket, 122, unification with Jacobites, 122

Nestorians among nomads, 6, 17, 39, 97, 161-2, 369, and eastern Christian kingdom, 173, concern with trade, 120-1, in Baghdad, 166, 195, in Golden Horde, 369, isolated, 193, opposition to Jin, 135, quarrelsomeness of, 209, 215, reasons for success, 97-8, support Qaidu, 208, support Tolui's line, 185-6, west European view of, 189, why Chinggiskhan overcomes them, 244

Neva, 187

Nevryui, 313-14

Nicaea, 193, 313, 371

Nicephorus III Botaneiates, Emperor, 289

Nicholas I, pope, 74

Nicholas III, pope, 215

Nicholas IV, pope, 367

Nilqa-Senggum, 156, 248, 251, 254, see also Senggum

Nirun, Mongol tribe, 114, 155

Nogai, 376, 377

nomads, 16, 18-24, 27, 76, 92, and cultural influences, 42, 217, and feudalism, 131-2, 350, and sedentary peoples, 20, 34, 205, climate and consolidation of, 132, economy of, 119-20, 178, Nestorianism's importance for, 96, 98, 217, particular culture of, 81, 217, perception of history, 31, tribal structure hinders unity, 136

Nonni r., 54, 210

Normans, 74-5

Novgorod, 180, 187, 273

Novgorod-Seversk, 302

noyans, 139, 160

Nukh lbn Asad, 84

Nu-shih-pi, 84

 

oases, 19, 47, 87, 115, 124 obo, 267

odnodvortsy, 370

Ogedei, son of Chinggiskhan (Great khan 1229-41), 141, 161, 179, 184, 228, 231, 233, 235, 236, 238, 271, 297, 309

Oghul-Qatmish (regent 1248-51), 186, 193

oguz, see Guz

Oirat, 93, 137, 155, 178

Okiji, 65

Oleg the Seer, prince of Kiev, 75

Oleg Svyatoslavich (c 1050-1115), prince of Chernigov, 289, 290, 304, 321

Ol'ga (c 890-969), princess of Kiev, 76, 103

Oljeitu, 223

Olomouc, Olmutz, 180, 313

Omayyads, 15 omens, 279

On, 158

Onggirat, Mongol tribe, 114, 142, 155, 230

Ongin, 96, 205

ongon, 262-3, 245-9, 256

Ong-qan, 137-9, 142-3, 149, 150, 155-7, 234, 236-8, 245-9, 256, adopts Chinggis, 156, see also To'onl

Ongut, 93, 94, 110, 137, 158, 176, 185, 210, 212, and Christianity, 97

Onon, 24, 87-8, 142, 145, 148, 151, 156, 158, 194

On-Som-khan, 158

Orda, brother of Batu, 179

Ordos, 19, 24, 51, 53, 78, 93, 137, 210

Origen, 37

Orkhon, 57, 95, 96, 110, 116, 298

Ormuzd (i.e. Ahura Mazdah), 37, 269, 274, 275, see also Qormusda

Orthodox, 36, 75, bishopric in Sarai, 188, 201, 311, in Central Asia, 102, mission in Siberia, 97

Otchigin (Temuge), 183, 233, 243

Otrar, 173

Otto I the Great, 76, 103-4

Otto of Friesing, 4

Ozbeg (khan of Golden Horde 1313-41), 160, 376

 

Palestine, 193-201, 367, 371

Pamirs, 22

Pannonia, 74

Pechenegs, 61, 74-6, 102, 104, 170, 291, spread of Islam among, 315

Pelagius, from Albano, cardinal, 167, 172, 252, 259

"people of long will", 140, 142, 148-52, 154, 156-8, elite created from them, 160

Pesakh, Khazar, 75

Photius, patriarch, 74

Pnogoshcha Virgin, 287, 310-11, 319, 322, significance of, 319, 321

political messages in concealed form, 144

Polo, Matthew, Maffeo, 210, Marco, 267, Nicholas, Niccolo, 210

Polotsk, 171, 312, 316f

Polovtsy, Cuman, Kimek, Kipchak, 166, 180, as cavalry, 322, in system of Kiev Principality, 292, largely baptised, 288, raid Novgorod Seversk, 318-19

Polovtsy steppes (Desht-i-Kipchak), 187, 301, 322

population, 13, 96, 120, 198, 311, 372, and precipitation, 119-20

power, terminology of, see titles

Prester John, 4-5, sources of the name John, 137, 165, 174, 188, 259, 327, 350, 366-7

Kingdom of its nature had it been realised, 37Of , not found, 6, 7, 11, 15, legend of basis for, 97, 101, Europeans disabused of, 118f , origins of, 362-4, variants of, 106, 123-4, 167

reality 191-201, 213, linked with rise of Chinggiskhan, 221

Przhewalski horse, 64

Pskov, 171

Pusuvyn`, 114

Putivl`, 300

 

Qabul-qan, 116, 134, 141, 143

Qachi'un-beki, 251

Qadaq(-ba'atur), 235, 242

Qadagin, Mongol tribe, 155

Qaidu, 203, 206, 207-9, 212, 214

Qaisites, 15

Qala'un-a'ula, 157

Qara-Muren, 110

Qaraqahit-elet, 257

Qaraqoto, 41, 177

Qarmatians, 74

Qasar, brother of Chinggiskhan, 141, 156, 226, 232, 233, 260

Qin, 27, 373

Qori-Shiremun, 266

Qormusda(i.e. Ahura Mazdah), 267-9, 271

Qorolas (Kuralas), 155

Qulan, 233

Quchar(-beki), 146-7, 151, 152, 156, 237, 251

Qurchaqus-Buyiruq qan, 134

Qutula-qahan, 134

Qutula-qan, 147

Quyuidar, 157, 297

 

races, anthropological, 89-90

Rashid-ad-Din, 223-4

Red Eyebrows, 28

"Red Robes", 163

religions, XV, 121, and dogma, 190-1, as indicators, 42-4, 104, 169, 185, give way to political units, 349, debates between, 264, 349, definition of, 270-1

Renaissance or humanism, Chinese, 24, 42, 49, 71

research and textology, 9

Richard the Lionheart, 196

Roland, Song of, 9, 312

Roman, prince of Volhynia, 293

romanisation of Chinese etc characters, XVIII-XIX, 81, 294

Romanus Lecapenus, 75

Rubruck, William of, Wilhelm van Ruysbroeck, 126-7, 188, 189, 193, 264

Rukn ad-Din Mahmud-khan, 118

Runkids, 288

Rus`, 75, 86, 102, 103, 171-2, 293, and steppe, 291, impact of Mongol invasions on, 307-8, 372, problem of eastern or western orientation, 187, 313, 321-2, refuge for Nestorians, 376, symbiosis with Golden Horde, 188

Rus`, Black (i.e. Chernaya Rus`), 308

Russia, 74, 235, 372, attacked by east and west, 375, Tatar and Mongol as synonyms in, 94

Russian and Mongol spheres of influence, 373

Russian princes and nomad allies, 289-91

Russian sources on Nestorianism, 368-70

Russian steppes, 176

Russians in China, 373-4

Ryazan`, 180

 

Saffar, see Yakub lbn Saffar

St John, Order of, 192, 198

Saksin, 166

Sala-ad-Din, Yusuf son of Eyub, 167, 170, 196

Salji'ut, Mongol tribe, 155

Samanids, 76, 87

Samarkand, 102, 116, 117-19, 121, 123, 164, 188, 202, 206

Samkerts (Taman'), 75

Samosata, 37, 75

Sanjar, 7, 117-19

Sarai, 118, 311, 369

Sartak (khan of Golden Horde 1256-7), 142, 187, 189, 190, 264, 310, 319-20, 322, 369

Sarykol, 166

Sauma, rabban, Uighur, 367

Sayan, 28, 63, 93, 95, 127, 137

Sayan Altai group of tribes, 341

scale, see history scope scheme, 326-7, areas in, 328

Schism, 74, 104

Seche-beki, 230

Secret History (Yuan-chao-bi-shi), 221-3, 224f , 245, its author not a Nestorian, 241, defends ancient Mongol prowess, 241-2, its nature, 230-43, 321

Sejestan, 118

Selenga.24, 61, 212

Seljuks, 20, 76, 117-19, 125, 193

Senggum, 157, 247, 266

Serbia, 102

Seven Streams region (Russ Semirech'e, Kazakh Dzhety-su), 7, 30, 74, 83, 115-16, 123, 162, 214, 255

Seversk (Novgorod-Seversk), 290, 312

shah, as title, 111

shamanism, 40, 89, 262-3, 268, 270, 271, 278, 280, 282, origin in Manchuria, 281

shamans, 193, 262, functions of, 280, tree of, 270

Shamo, desert, 175

Shandong, 175

Shangdu (Shandu), 204, 205

Shanshun, Tibet, 274

Shash (Tashkent), 19

Shato, 51, 56, 58, 64, 69, 70-4, 82, 91, 93, 96, 340, decline of, 70

Shazhou, 81

Sheret ad-durr, 197

Shi Huang-di, Qin emperor, 27

Shi Jintang, 66

Shi Zhonggui, 69

Shigi-qutuqu, 203

Shikhab ad-dm Yakhi, 86

Shivei, 55, 60, 64, 91, 92, Yellow Snivel, 114-15

Shu region, 58, 65, 66

Siberia, 60

Sichuan, 19, 201-3

Sidon, 198-9

Sikkim, 277

Sihbi-Li-Simo, 297

Sima qian, 28

SimaYan, 29

Simeon, Rabban-ata, 191

Sinai, 199

Sit` r., 180

Smolensk, 314

Song dynasty (960-1279), 24, 25, 59, 78-80, 91-2, 96, 103, 107-12, 122, 136, 163, 201, 207,

Southern Song, 176

Sorgan-Shira, 227, 234, 236

Sorqoqtani Beki, 161, 172, 185

sources, approaches to, 8-9, 357, 361

Steppe, the Great, 83, 115, 127, 201, 229, a unity, xvi, 27, 34-5, 99, 149, 158, 160, 173, desiccation of, 52, 64-5, 76, tribes of, 340-3, unification of a necessity, 259, consequences of, 176

steppes, 18-24, increased moisture in, 119, 132, neglected in tenth century, 57, 60, variations in western ones, 291, see also specific areas

Sube'etei, 162, 179-80, 182, 234-5, Chinggiskhan's praise of, 235

Sui dynasty (589-618), 33-4

Suiyan, 108

Sule, see Kashgar

Sungan, 60, 297

Sushen, 88, 297

Suzdal`, 180

Svyatopolk the Accursed (c 980-1019), 273

Svyatoslav Igorevich (?-972 or 973), prince of Kiev, 103

Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich, grandson of

Oleg, prince of Kiev, 287, 313-14, 316

Svyatoslav Yaroslavich (1027-76), prince of Chernigov, 302, 317

synthesis, 10, 13-17

Syr Darya (Jaxartes), 83-4

Syria, 74, 76, 170, 363

 

Tabghach, 32-4, 48

Tabriz, 191

Tadjik, 271

Tagai-Kulakai, Mangqut, 252

Taichar, brother of Jamuqa, 257

taiga, 60, 64

Taiyuan, 72

Tat-zong, Tang emperor, 39, 297

Taklamakan desert, 19, 124

Talas, 84

Tamgalik, Mongol tribe, 114

Tang empire (618-906), 25, 33-4, 39, 43, 48-52, 70-1, 74, 78, Later, 53, 56, 58, 65-6, 79-80, Middle, 60, Southern, 68

Tangut (Dansyan to Chinese), 16, 41, 51, 78-9, 81-3, 93, 98-100, 108, 112-16, 125, 134-6, 138, 159, 163, 177, 340

Tanmachi, 373

Tanshikhai, 28

Tao He, 79

Tarbagatati, 19, 22, 163, 178, 207

Targutai, Mongol tribe, 114, 155

Tarim Basin, 19, 47, 83, 90

Tarmashirin, Chagatai khan, 214

Tarqutai-kinltuq, 142, 226-7

Tatab (Kumokhi, Khi, Xi), 54-5, 60, 93, 107

Tatars (Chinese Da-dan), 54, 88-9, 91-3, 113, 115, 136-7, 139, 141, 155-6, 158, 175, 188, 191, 195, 264, 267, 272, 293, 311, 318, Black, 83, 94-5, meanings of term, 93-5, 99, 293 (see also Zubu), White, 94-5, Wild, 94-5

Tayang-qan, naiman, 126-1, 132, 158, 253-4, 256

Tayichi'ut, 137, 141-2, 155-6, 226-7, 236, 295

Tbilisi, 192

Tebnz, 223

Teb-Tenggen, Kokochu, shaman, 233, 241, 260

technical progress, 14, 16, among nomads, 31, 61

Tele, 64, 114-15

Teless group of tribes, 340

Templars, 192, 198, 200, 212, 366-7

Temuge(-otchigm), 185, 241, 260

Temujin (1162-1227, Chinggiskhan from 1182), 140-4, 146-8, 231, 236-8, 247, ambiguous portrait of in Secret History, 232-6, break with Jamuqa, 146-7, childhood, youth, 142-3, 150, date of birth, 141, 226-8, supported by "people of long will", 148, 150, swears brotherhood with Jamuqa, 142, 226-7, renews it, 145-6, takes title of Chinggwkhan, 137, 228

Temujm, Tatar warrior, 141

Temur (emperor of China 1294-1307), 210-12

Tenggeri, i.e. Heaven, 260, 266, 268

Tengis, 88

tengri, 271

Termez, 123

Teutonic Order, 192, 321

threshold, 280

Tianshan, range, 19, 22, 30, 47-8, 62-3, 84, 114, 123-4, 203, 301

Tibet, Tibetans, 35, 51, 54, 67, 80-3, submission to Mongols, 177-8

Tibetan-speaking tribes, 341

Tigris, 191

Tikin, 93, 132

Tile = T'ele, 64, 114-15

titles of rulers, 83, 86, 90, 91, 110-11, 139

Toba, 32-3, 78

Toba De-Ming, 80, 81

Toba-Wei dynasty, 82, 373

Toba Yuan-Hao, 80-3

Toba Zi-peng, 79

Toba Zi-qian, 79, 80

Tobol, 86

Togachar, 204

Togon, 51, 54, 56, 66, 69

Tokuz-Oguz, 125

Tokuz-Tatars, 95

Tolar , 96, 157

Tolui, son of Chinggiskhan ("M232), 141, 161, 179, 181

Tong Guan, 107

Ton'yukuk, 39

To'onl, Kerait, 134, 136-9, 142, 145, becomes wang (Wankhan, Ong-qan, q v ), 137

To'onl of Soge'en tribe, 251

Toqto'a-beki, 162

Toregena'(-Qatun), wife of Ogedei, 161, 184-6, 309-10

Tork, 290-1, see also Guz

Torzhok, 180

Trabzon, 371

Trans-Baikal, 18, steppes, 82, 87-8, 90

Trans-Caucasus, 205

translation, 10

transliteration, 294

Transoxiana (region beyond the Amu Dairya), see Mavaranahr

"tree" in Black Faith, 270, 305

tribes, aristocracy of, 150-4, 156-7, fragmentation of, 120, 140, 147, need for united defence, 111

Tripoli, 367

Troyan, 299f , 322, "ages" of, 302-3, as translation of Trinity, 303

Tsan-pu, 274 Tubegen, 266

Tubot, 80-1, 170, 180

Tukhsi, 83

tumen, 163, 176, 229

Tungus-speaking tribes, 341

Turan shah, 197

Turfan, 48, 80-1, 85, 90, 97, 135

Turgish, 83, 339

Turkestan, 165

Turkic lands/people, 62, 64, 90, 92

Turks, Blue, 92, China, 92, "faithless", 16, 74, 118, own ideas, 35, 69

Turkmen, Turcoman (Guz), 84, 192

Turkut, 47, 63, 83-4, 86, 132

Tu'ula, 247

Tyre, 198

 

Uba, Uvar, Zubu leader, 98

Uc Oguz, 125

Ugi, 56, 60, 64, 95, 99, 114, 297

Ugrians, 34, 85-6

Uighuria, 40, 57, 98, 124, 138, 340

Uighurs, 35, 47-8, 80-1, 84, 90, 95, 97, 114, 116, 123, 125, 133, 172, against war with China, 135, and Mongols, 162-3, 183, 252, back Ye lu Dashi, 120-1, merchant capital among, 135, trade and religious concerns, 116

Ulaqchi.187, 369

Ulgen, 272

Ulu David, 199, 204

UlughTagh, 246

Unga, 97

Uraqai, 177

Uriangqadai, 202, 204

Uriangqai, tribe, 95, 114, 115, 147

Urunggu, 156

Uryankhan, 9

Ustyurt, 85

Usum, 28, 30

Utbi, 84-5

Utken forest, 18

Uzbek, 214

Usboi, 23

Uzgend, 164

 

Venice, 135, 192, 198, 313

Vico, 15

vipers` venom, 297-8

Vitovt, Vitautas (1350-1430), of Lithuania, 377

Vladimir on Klyaz'ma, 180, 312

Vladimir Svyatoslavich (?-1015), "Bright Sun", conversion of, 104

Vladimir Vsevolodovich (1053-1125) Monomakh, 86, 289, 290-1, 304

Volga, 22, 75, 104, 180, 322 Volyn",

Volhynia, 180

Vseslav Bryacheslavich (?-1101), prince of Polotsk, 302, 317, 321

Vsevolod I Yaroslavich (1030-93), prince of Kiev, 289, 317

VsevolodII, Ol'govich C-l 146), prince of Chernigov and Kiev, 304

Vsevolod III (1154-1212) "Big Nest", prince of Vladimir, 314, 316

 

Wallachia, 180

wang (king), 111, see also titles

Wang, later Li Congke, 67

Wang Du, 65

Wang khan (Wankhan), see To'onl, Ong-qan

Wang Mang, 28

Wei dynasty, 32-3, 78

Wei r., 51

Weishui, 79

Western Territory, 47, 90, Turkisation of, 84

White Sea, 22

wizardry, 279, 281

Wu-di, Han emperor (140-87 b c ), 29

Wurman, 28

Wu-sha, 163

Wuwan tribes, 56

Wuyun, 110

 

Xi, 108

Xia empire, 114, Western, 82

Xianbi, ancient Mongol tribes, 28, 32, 33, 54, 272

Xiao Gan, Liao commander, 108

Xiaozhou, 66, 79, or Xiazhou, 79, 107

Xing'an range, 19, 28, 137

Xi-xia, 16, 114, 134, 340

Xuan, 107

Xuan-zong, 39, 40

 

Yablonovy range, 61

Yagma, 76, 84

Yagnob, 271

Yaik = Ural r., 85

Yaimen, 67

Yakub lbn-Saffar, 74

Yakut, 60

Yalu, 98

YanVsyhatich, 302

Yang Jian, 33

Yang Xi, Liao emperor, 108-9, 112

Yangzi, 32, 53, 209

Yarkand, 85, 96

yarluk, 187

Yaroslav of Suzdal`, 186

Yaroslav Vladimirovich (1130s-1187), Osmomysl, prince of Galich, 315

Yaroslav Vladimirovich (c 978-1054), the Wise, 302

Yaroslav Vsevolodovich (1191-1246), prince of Vladimir, 309, 317

Yaroslavl`, 302

Yaroslavna (Efrosin'ya), 293

Yasa, 159, 172, 179, 201, 203, 215

Yellow river, Huang He, 33

Yellow Sea, Huang Hai, 8

Yellow Turbans, 39

Ye-lu, Khitan house Alusaogu 99-100, Ambagan (A-bao ji), 53-5, 57-8, 60, 64, 69, 107, 110

Chu cai, 209, 236, 318, adviser to Chinggiskhan, controlled power under Ogedei, 181, and Chinese culture, 183, collapse of his system, 184, long-term impact, 204, not mentioned in Secret History, 238, 241, policy conflicts with Uighur and Muslim interests, 184

Dashi, 6, 107-23, 131, 214, command structure of, 120, religion of, 121, sources of strength, 117f, 120

Deguan, 58, 65, 67, 71-2, 75, 110, 358, Duyu 65, Ren-Xian, 99

Yinshan, 30

Yishui, 108

Yisugei(-ba'atur), 134, 136-7, 141, 143, 247, 273

Yisugen, 234

Yo Fei, 113

Youzhou (now Beijing), 59

Yuan, 33, 207, 323, 373

Yuan-chao-bi shi (Secret History of the Mongols, q v The Russian translation is referred to as The Concealed Tale), 226

Yuan-hao, 80-3

Yue, 29

Yunnan, 19

Yurii II, prince of Vladimir and all Rus`, 171, 180

 

Zadonshchina, 298

Zanzibar, 74

Zeravshan, 119

Zhan-sun Sheng, 33

Zhe La, 66

Zhekhe, 204

zhongshulina "chancellor", 182

Zhou, Later, 70

Zhou Wen, 52, 53, 55

Zhun, tribe, 18

Zilu, 30, 32

Zindik Turks, 40

zmdji, 74

Zoroaster, 36, 268-9, 275

Zubu, 56f , 91-5, 99, 101, 108, 114, 127, 149, 158-9, 170

 

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